.

      ɡ Ժ .. 
      ԡ ...
      Ⱥ " " " : ʡ ʡ . (: 91) : (...) ɡ : ȡ ". . ɡ .
       ɡ ɺ ..   
     " " " " " " "" " " ѡ " " ..
      " " ( 3 2003 : 88: "   . . (...) ȡ . ӡ ǡ ɡ ѡ ȡ ɡ ..".
      les sept patrons de Marrakech  ɡ ɡ " " ( 2004) ǡ "" . " " ( 2004: 155): " ɡ ǡ "...
      "" : " ӡ "... : 961ܡ 976ܡ ֡ ӡ 991 ...
      : 950   963ܡ 976ܡ . 964ܡ Ӻ Ⱥ ԡ 961 ..
      " " " ".
       " " (: 156): " ء ". " " ɡ   " ѡ (..) . ʡ ӡ .. 919 (1513) ӡ ߡ () ... ".
      - -   ӡ ͡ ȡ : ". "" ....
      " " (: 43): " "... ԡ .
      : " ԡ ѡ ɡ ڡ ϡ ߡ ʡ "...
      "" le Haouz de Marrakech .. " ": " ޡ : ..".. 
      " " " " : " . . " " " : " . . ӡ Ǻ .. ".
      ɡ Ǻ : " ". - - ӡ " " "" "" ͡ " " ... " " ɡ "" " "   ..
      " ) ( ɡ 2005 : 7): " ʡ ǡ ɡ ɡ ɡ .. : ڡ ɿ ( ) : "Ρ ޡ ޡ ѡ ѡ Ρ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ڡ "..
      " ": " ( ) " " ɡ ɡ ɡ ..".
      (: 18-19): " "" maraboutisme () . ǡ ɡ . ѡ "": " ǡ "..
      : " " " – - " ": " : ǡ ȡ : : ɡ ɡ ޡ ޡ .. ʡ " ". ɡ ɡ (..) ʡ ɡ ɡ ɡ : " " [ɡ 56] .. : " : . " " " " " " " " " " " "..".
       (: 17-18): " 926/ 1519 (935)  1528-1529 : " " " ͡ . ޡ . ԡ ɡ "..
      ǡ   ..