.

޺ . 654 (1256) ԡ ԡ 724 (1321) ..
ˡ . ̡ .. .. ӡ . " " ɡ ..
ȡ .. ȡ ɡ ޡ ... ߡ ..
ҡ . " " " " " " " " " " ( (1983)).. ǡ ӡ ..
ߡ " " ɡ ɡ 1952.
" " ..
: ..
" " (334) ..
" " ǡ ȡ ɡ . : " " ѡ : " . ޡ ޡ : "..
ɡ ѡ ǡ . " " .
ѡ ..
" " Smith Sarton - - . ϡ ɡ . 1864 Marre . 1969.
ߡ : " " ɡ ѡ ѡ Ⱥ " " " " " " " " " " ȡ " " " " " " ...
ѡ ..
ɡ ȡ ..
: ( 14- : : - : 2004) 13 " " : ϡ ɡ ɡ ͡ ɡ ڡ : ݡ ݡ ɡ ʡ ʡ .
ɡ " " . ѡ ѡ . ѡ ѡ .
: ". " " : ɡ ɡ ( ۡ ).
: " ѡ " " . . ǡ ."
" " "". . ǡ " ". ߡ ɡ ɡ .
– - : ( ) ɡ 7 14 20 ʡ ǡ . .. ɿ..
– - " " " " ա ȡ . ǡ ... ȿ
: ɡ Ⱥ : ϡ ɡ ɺ : .
: ϡ ȡ ɡ - - ɺ ȡ – - : " ǡ . - - .
ȡ ɡ ɡ " ": " ֡ ǡ Ρ . ɡ . ѡ ١ ".
ɡ ɡ . ʡ . ( : 14- : : - : 2004)..
: (ӡ 1948) . : ( 1951) " " " " ( 1 ߡ 1970) ǡ ( . ʡ 1998) : ( " ҡ -1994) ۡ " " ( ɡ ء 2001)..
ʡ ɡ "" " " ..